Surfactants

Alpha Olefin Sulfonate (AOS)

Normal alpha olefins are excellent intermediates for producing alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS) surfactants. These surfactants provide outstanding detergency, high compatibility with hard water, and good wetting and foaming properties. AOS is free of skin irritants and sensitizers, and it biodegrades rapidly. It is used in high-quality shampoos, light-duty liquid detergents, bubble baths, and heavy-duty liquid and powder detergents. It is also used in emulsion polymerization. C14-C16 AOS blends are frequently used in liquid hand soaps.

To make AOS, normal alpha olefins are first sulfonated in a continuous thin film reactor to produce a mixture of alkene sulfonic acids and sultones (cyclic sulfonate esters). The mixture is neutralized with aqueous sodium hydroxide, then hydrolyzed at elevated temperatures to convert the remaining sultones to alkene sulfonates and hydroxy sulfonates. This results in an aqueous solution of alpha olefin sulfonate. (If a solid anhydrous product is desired, it can be easily obtained by neutralizing and hydrolyzing the solution in isopropanol instead of water).

Detergent Alcohols

Normal alpha olefins are easily converted to primary alcohols via oxo chemistry. By reaction with ethylene oxide, the alcohols form a variety of nonionic ethoxylates, which may themselves serve as surfactants or be further derivatized. Anionic alkyl ether sulfates can be derived from the sulfation of the ethoxylates. These are widely used in the cosmetics and toiletries industries. Alternatively, the alcohols may be directly sulfated to produce alkyl sulfates.

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates

Normal alpha olefins react with benzene via Lewis acid catalysis to form linear alkyl benzenes (LABs). Sulfonation and subsequent neutralization of LAB result in linear alkyl benzene sulfonates, which are commonly used in dishwashing liquids, laundry detergents, all-purpose cleaners, and lube-oil additives. Similarly, phenol or naphthalene will react with olefins, producing other types of detergents and wetting agents upon sulfonation/neutralization.

Amine Derivatives

Normal alpha olefins are also suitable for manufacturing alkyl dimethyl amines (ADMAs), which are precursors to a number of surface-active derivatives. Amine oxides produced via hydrogen peroxide oxidation of ADMAs are excellent foam boosters and are typically used in shampoos, bubble baths, and dishwashing detergents.

Quaternary ammonium halides or "Quats," which result from reaction of ADMAs with alkyl or benzyl halides, are highly effective biocides and antistatic agents. Betaines, which are mild amphoteric surfactants, feature good foam boosting and stabilizing properties. They are readily derived from ADMAs by reaction with sodium chloroacetate.

Alkane Sulfonates

Sodium bisulfite will react with normal alpha olefins via a free-radical mechanism to produce alkane sulfonates. Alkane sulfonates with chain lengths of C12 or higher have limited water solubility, suggesting their application in synthetic detergent bars. Shorter alkane sulfonates like C8, however, are hydrotropic.

ADMA
Products Documents Applications
AlphaPlus® 1-Dodecene Detergent Alcohols, Plasticizer Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Epoxides, Mercaptans, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Hexadecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Lube Oil Additives, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® 1-Octadecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Lube Oil Additives, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® 1-Tetradecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, Detergent Alcohols, ASA, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
Alkyl Aromatics
Products Documents Applications
AlphaPlus® 1-Decene Detergent Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, Plasticizer Alcohols, Epoxides, Di-/Poly- Halides, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Dodecene Detergent Alcohols, Plasticizer Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Epoxides, Mercaptans, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Hexadecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Lube Oil Additives, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® 1-Hexene Polyethylene Comonomers, Homo-/Co- Polymers, Alkyl Aromatics, Polyol Esters, Plasticizer Alcohols, Epoxides, Alkyl Silanes, Metal Alkyls, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Octadecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Lube Oil Additives, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® 1-Octene Polyethylene Comonomers, Detergent Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, Polyol Esters, ASA, Mercaptans, Epoxides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Tetradecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, Detergent Alcohols, ASA, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® C20-24 Lube Oil Additives, Personal Care, Epoxides, Alkyl Aromatics, Drilling Fluids, Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, Pour Point Depressants, Functional Fluids
AOS
Products Documents Applications
AlphaPlus® 1-Hexadecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Lube Oil Additives, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® 1-Octadecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Lube Oil Additives, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® 1-Tetradecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, Detergent Alcohols, ASA, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids
AlphaPlus® C14-16 50:50 AOS, Drilling Fluids
AlphaPlus® C14-16 65:35 AOS, Drilling Fluids
Detergent Alcohols
Products Documents Applications
AlphaPlus® 1-Decene Detergent Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, Plasticizer Alcohols, Epoxides, Di-/Poly- Halides, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Dodecene Detergent Alcohols, Plasticizer Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, ASA, Epoxides, Mercaptans, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Octene Polyethylene Comonomers, Detergent Alcohols, Polyalphaolefins, Alkyl Aromatics, Polyol Esters, ASA, Mercaptans, Epoxides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances
AlphaPlus® 1-Tetradecene Maleic Anhydride Copolymers, AOS, Alkyl Aromatics, ADMA, Detergent Alcohols, ASA, Epoxides, Metal Working Fluids, Di-/Poly- Halides, Alkyl Silanes, Personal Care, Flavors & Fragrances, Functional Fluids